- 1 Should I be growing my plants using a hydroponic system?
- 2 Hydroponic Systems available in the UK
- 3 Water-based hydroponic systems
- 4 SureGrow NFT systems
- 5 Nutriculture NFT systems
- 6 Medium-based hydroponic Systems
- 7 Nutriculture Ebb & Flow systems
- 8 Nutriculture Drip systems
- 9 Hydroponic Supplies and Accessories
- 10 Inert Media (for medium-based hydroponic systems)
- 11 Nutrient Solutions
- 12 Seed Starter media
- 13 pH meters
- 14 Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) meters
- 15 Making Purified Water for Hydroponics
Should I be growing my plants using a hydroponic system?
If you are growing or planning to grow plants under LED lighting, then you are probably just as interested in optimising the grow medium as you are the grow lighting. Although plants evolved to grow in soil, they actually only need the dissolved mineral nutrients that are found within it … and that’s where a hydroponic system comes in. Hydroponics is a technique for growing plants where the soil is replaced by an optimised concoction of nutrients that has been specifically formulated to cater to the needs of plants. Unlike soil, which can vary widely in nutrient levels, hydroponic systems provide a much better way of precisely controlling the amount of nutrients plants are given so that their growth can be optimised. Hydroponic systems also allow one to do a whole lot more with a whole lot less. Space is something that is always very important to us indoor gardeners and especially to those of us in the UK where any floor space is always at a premium. Hydroponic systems are far more productive per unit area as plants grow far more efficiently in nutrient solution than they do in soil. Since all the nutrients that a plant needs are readily available in an absorbable form, they also don’t have to grow as large a root network to ensure that they get enough of their required nutrients. This means that more resources are available to grow the part of the plant that is ‘above ground’. It also means that you can get more out of your plants in a shorter period of time, permitting edible-plant growers more harvests per year than the equivalent soil-based set-ups. Together with grow lighting, hydroponics is also ideally suited to multi-level set-ups where the nutrient solution is able to flow ‘down’ the system. Hydroponics performed under the right conditions (ie. within grow tents or a grow room with bug nets on the air intakes) can also pretty much do away with pesticides. Finally, the other great thing about hydroponics is that even though the system is based around water, it actually only uses a tenth of the water that plants normally use when they are grown in soil since hydroponic systems continuously recycle the nutrient solution with very little waste, making it kinder on our water bills!
So if it is so much better then soil-based growing, why aren’t more people growing hydroponically? The foremost reason is the upfront cost and difficulty of set up: it is far cheaper and easier to throw some soil into a pot, plant some seeds, and let nature take its course, than it is to figure out, learn about and part with your hard-earned cash on specialist hydroponic equipment. The thing is, over time (and if you are a committed indoor gardener like myself), it WILL work out to be cheaper to grow hydroponically, and once you’ve dedicated a little time to understanding how hydroponics works, you will probably save time in the long run not having to deal with all the inefficiencies associated with soil-based gardening!
So you may be wandering whether your specific plants can be grown in a hydroponic system, well fortunately, that’s an easy question to answer. If your plants can grow in soil, then they can almost certainly be grown hydroponically. It’s just sometimes a matter of getting the right hydroponic system that is best suited to your plant type. Some plants are relatively easy to grow and do well in all hydroponic systems. These include salad greens (lettuce, spinach, etc) and herbs (eg. parsley, basil, mint). In the case of tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and chillies, they too will do well in almost any hydroponic system as long as they get copious amounts of light – think LED grow lights! 🙂 However, some plants like root vegetable-type plants (eg. potatoes), berries, and bulb-type flowers do better in some hydroponic systems than others. So let’s take a look at the different systems available.
Hydroponic Systems available in the UK
As with any other technology, there are a number of equipment variations that one can adopt when setting up a hydroponic system, but all of them pretty much fall into one of two main categories: either the plant roots are ‘suspended’ in a constant flow of nutrient solution without any supporting medium (other than the starter media used in plant propagation), here referred to as ‘water-based hydroponic systems’, or they use an inert medium in which the roots of the plant grow with the nutrient solution trickling through it, a so-called ‘medium-based hydroponic system’.
Water-based hydroponic systems
The most commonly-used water-based hydroponic system is the Nutrient Film Technique or NFT which usually does not employ any medium for root growth. These systems are composed of some form of channel in which the nutrient solution, having been pumped into the top of the system, flows back down into the reservoir in an endless cycle. Plants that have well developed root systems are then usually placed in some form of a holding ‘basket’ with their roots ‘dangling’ down into the nutrient solution (click on the image to the right to see roots growing in a typical NFT system).
For young plants, that have yet to develop a sufficient root structure, rockwool cubes or similar propagation starter media in which the seedlings are first grown, are often placed just at the nutrient solution water line to allow the cubes to become moist. This encourages the baby plant to grow roots down out of the starter media and into the nutrient solution.
For the home grower, the SureGrow NFT hydroponic system is similar to what most professionals use and what one usually sees on TV but on a much smaller scale. It comes in a range of sizes to cater to your space restrictions and number of plants required, and can be purchased either as a complete system (see table below) or as ‘add-on’ units, which can be useful for future expansion of your hydroponic set-up (the tanks hold sufficient volume to allow one add-on unit to be attached). The mesh pots that come with the SureGrow system have snap-on lids to minimize light exposure of the nutrient solution and the pots are also designed to be easily lifted, which is useful for root inspections. One point to note is that although this is officially a medium-free system, professionals usually fill the mesh pots with a little coco or clay pebble media to physically stabilize the starter media containing the seedling or cutting especially if the starter media is much smaller than the mesh pot.
SureGrow NFT systems
|Name||Number of Plants|
Another UK company, Nutriculture, also makes a simple but versatile NFT hydroponic system that is different from the typical NFT set-up and is also specifically designed for the home grower. Instead of independent channels for nutrient flow as with SureGrow-type systems, Nutriculture NFT systems have multiple channels embedded in the bottom of a tray on which plant pots or rockwool cubes or similar starter media containing the plants are placed. The tray sits above a reservoir of nutrient solution which is continuously pumped into one side of the tray, flows through the channels before falling back into the reservoir. Conveniently, they also come in a range of sizes so that you can simply get the system that fits your requirements and the space you have available (see table below).
Nutriculture NFT systems
Medium-based hydroponic Systems
Ebb & Flow (also known as Ebb & Flood) set-ups. These systems contain an inert medium that mostly provides physical support to the plant roots. At regular intervals, the root-filled medium is flooded with nutrient solution which then, through the action of gravity, slowly drains back into the original reservoir whence it came. Ebb and Flow hydroponic systems can be used for plants at all stages in their life cycle, but are particularly useful for small plants since the medium provides structural support for the young plant and its developing roots. The simplest and most robust Ebb & Flow hydroponic system that you can get in the UK is also from Nutriculture. In the Nutriculture Ebb & Flow system, plants are grown within an upper tray containing the medium itself or the individual pots containing the medium, depending on preference. The upper tray sits atop a separate reservoir of nutrient solution which is then pumped into the upper tray from an opening at the bottom. The upper tray contains channels to ensure even distribution of nutrient solution as soon as it enters the upper tray. Gradually, the nutrient solution trickles back down into the lower reservoir ready for the next feeding cycle.
Nutriculture Ebb & Flow systems
Drip hydroponic systems: A slight variation on the Ebb and Flow medium-based hydroponic set-up is the Drip system. This works in a similar fashion to Ebb and Flow systems but instead of flooding the medium from below, the solution flows into the upper tray from openings placed above the medium. The nutrient solution is then free to trickle though the medium back into the nutrient solution reservoir. This system is even more suited to young plants that are still developing their root network, as the solution is ‘guaranteed’ to pass over even the smallest root network. Once again Nutriculture appears to have the best all-round system for this type of hydroponics (see table below) – (btw just in case you are wandering, I have no association whatsoever with Nutriculture, they just seem to have the most appropriate systems for the home grower in the UK!).
Nutriculture Drip systems
|Name||Dimensions||Number of Plants||Grow Tent Size|
|FG500||L 55.5cm x W 46cm x H 29cm||1||60cm x 60cm or 80cm x 80cm|
|FG510||L 102.5cm x W 52cm x H 30cm||4 - 10||1.2m x 1.2m|
|FG520||L 71cm x W 71cm x H 26.5cm||4 - 9||1m x 1m|
Hydroponic Supplies and Accessories
Inert Media (for medium-based hydroponic systems)
There are several media on the market that can be used with medium-based hydroponic systems (Ebb & Flow set-ups and Drip systems). The four main ones that are most often used are shown in table below. All of them will work to some extent but you will have to do a bit of trial-and-error to identify which are working well in your hydroponic system. For example, if you are using a drip-based hydroponic system and the ‘dripping’ happens to be slow, then you will need a medium that retains water for longer as the nutrient solution may be draining away faster than it is being added. Often more experienced hydroponic horticulturists will use a specific mixture of different media to achieve the desired aeration and drainage properties that they need. The most commonly-used hydroponic medium around are clay pebbles which you often see used on display in garden centres and gardening stores. The clay pebbles are reusable so can be quite economical but they will have to be cleaned and sterilized after each use. Less common media include coco, perlite, vermiculite, sand, gravel, growstones, and others. The 4 best ones appear to be clay pebbles, coco, perlite and vermiculite. Clay pebbles and perlite exhibit excellent aeration and drainage properties compared to other media, whereas coco and vermiculite tend to retain water more and have the added advantage that they absorb nutrients for later use by plants. Unlike clay pebbles however, perlite is very light weight and often needs to be stabilized with a denser medium to prevent it from floating away, especially in Ebb & Flood hydroponic systems. 50% perlite / 50% vermiculite or 50% perlite / 50% coco are mixtures that tend to give the right combination of aeration and drainage properties for many hydroponic systems, but ultimately you will have to experiment to get the right one for yours.
For information on nutrient solutions used in hydroponics, see the Nutrient Media page.
For information on media used for seed-starting and plant propagation in hydroponics, see the Seed Starter Media page.
For information on pH meters used for hydroponics, see the pH Meters page.
For information on EC and TDS meters used in hydroponics, see the EC (TDS) Meters page.